game

Review of Blackjack Essays

Mason Malmuth is one of the most recognizable names in gambling for writing an incredible volume of information on applying skill to casino games. His book, Blackjack Essays, generally represents some of his earliest forays as an author and serves as a compendium of most of his contributions to the game of blackjack.

There are about 70 essays in this book dealing with a wide range of topics. Almost every one represented a new area of inquiry when it was written. Some now are well integrated into the corpus of general blackjack knowledge, some have been extended and elaborated on in other books, some represent the first foray into a still largely unexplored area, and some are still largely the last word on a particular topic.

The earliest essays in this book cover a concept Malmuth calls, “Card Domination”, which these days is more commonly called Shuffle Tracking. This is still a good introduction to the topic, although the Blackjack Forum series on Shuffle Tracking which appeared in about 1994 is far more thorough. However, I’ve recently seen shuffles which are trackable using Malmuth’s methods.

Another topic Malmuth explores in great depth is that of bankroll requirements or “Gambler’s Ruin”. Malmuth does a great job here of discussing why early blackjack literary figures probably underestimated the size of the fluctuations they would face. Of course, there was still room to explore these ideas in more detail in, for example, Blackjack Attack by Don Schlesinger. However, Malmuth’s writings on this topic are still valuable today, they’re just no longer the last word.

Malmuth provides what is probably the best currently in print description of Front Loading, good information on how to improve the profitability of casino trips, and, a Malmuth trademark, a thorough debunking of several mistaken blackjack myths perpetrated by other authors. Malmuth also provides some surprising results regarding biases, or “card clumping” that receives further attention in other books, but aptly demonstrates the author’s intellectual honesty in this volume.

On some topics, like Malmuth’s preference of shoe Slot Gacor games to hand-held games, and on his preference for more complex count systems, I disagree with the author. However, in these cases I do not fault his conclusions. Malmuth presents his case in a clear, straightforward manner listing the “pros” and “cons” of both sides of the issue and stating the reasons he believes his side of the debate is correct. By doing this he forces a reader who disagrees with him to articulate the reasons why, and, thus, does the reader a service.

Even though this book was first assembled almost 14 years ago, and some of its ideas have been expanded by other authors elsewhere, it still belongs in every serious blackjack player’s library. The ideas it espouses are, at their worst, worthy of serious consideration. I recommend it to anyone who has already learned and practiced a blackjack card counting system. Anyone who enjoyed this book should also read Gambling Theory and Other Topics, and anyone who enjoyed Gambling Theory and plays blackjack seriously should certainly read this book.

Capsule:

If you’ve learned and practiced a card counting system, have played in a casino, and are looking for extra advice, Blackjack Essays will likely be of considerable value. While it may not be the best supplemental book for the blackjack card counter (Blackjack Attack gets that honor), and some of its ideas are a bit dated or covered more thoroughly elsewhere, I still recommend it as a more than worthwhile addition to any serious blackjack player’s library.

 

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business

How To Stay Healthy While Diamond Painting ?!

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Making diamond paintings is an easy and relaxing, enjoyable activity for all young and old crafters. But if you are one of diamond painting lovers, please pay attention to your health when you’re so interested in the works and stay still too long for drilling.

 

Although painting with diamonds has many good benefits to your health, it also comes with some unexpected problems. When you sit and making it for too long, there will be some problems to your health such as:

 

Back and Neck Pain

 

To help you prevent from getting these problems, we have found out some ways for you.

 

  1. Take hourly breaks

Every hour,  get up from your desk or table and go for a quick walk anywhere. Just move. It will help you to reduce the stress to your eyes and also stretch your legs.

 

  1. Stretch or move in place

Don’t have anywhere to go? So you can stand up and stretch every half hour or so, touch your toes, walk or march in place for a few minutes.

 

 

  1. Set alarms on your computer or mobile device

Every hour of making diamond paintings, have a little ringer go off to remind you to take a stretch or walk to the nearest tree or neighbor’s house, or even walk/ play with your pet.

 

  1. Hit the water

Get yourself a reusable water bottle and keep it on your desk. Make yourself drink at least one full bottle before lunch, and one full one for the rest of the day. Drinking water will keep you fuller and less tempted to snack on empty calorie.  More about Diamond Dotz

 

  1. Use some useful support tools

A light pad is more useful than you think! Many choices for you such as light pad A4, bigger A3, bigger A2…

 

Moreover, an adjustable folding table or a simple easel is amazing! Let’s see some experience shared by diamond painters.

 

 

 

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game

Spanish 21 history

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A child of the computer age, spanish 21 is a computer derived variation of blackjack. The term “spanish” refers to the 48-card deck used in some spanish card games. It is a regular 52-card deck with the four tens removed. Although, in most respects spanish 21 is played just like standard blackjack the basic strategy is somewhat different.
As a specially designed version of blackjack, spanish 21 had liberalized rules and unique bonuses. The casinos can be so generous in spanish 21 because removal of the four tens from the deck gives the house a large advantage. The changes in rules and payout were designed to attract jaded blackjack players and are what has made the game so popular. For instance, in standard blackjack, it is always exhilarating to hit a count of 21 on the nose. But it quickly turn into a disappointment if the dealer also hits 21 (resulting in a push instead of a win). In spanish 21, if both dealer and player have 21, the player wins.

A big reason why the casinos like spanish 21 so much is Unique Casino because it’s quick like traditional blackjack, and gives player about the same edge, while throwing off card counters. Not to mention the fact that the more liberal rules of spanish 21 attracts the players who have grown tired of blackjack.

slot machines history

The term slot machines was originally used for automatic vending machines as well as for the gambling devices, but in the 20th century the term became restricted to the latter. The first such gambling devices in the United States were mere novelties that did not return coins but presented gambling opportunities, such as two toy horses that would race after a coin was inserted. Such devices set on a bar in a saloon attracted wagering between patrons.

The first actual slot machines were built by Charles Fay in 1887 in a small machine shop in San Francisco. He built nickle slot machines by hand and rented them to the local gambling halls. His first machine was not, as some believe, cruder and bulkier than modern slot machines, nor did its reels carry the fruit symbols commonly used today. His original slot machine, called the Liberty Bell, was somewhat smaller than modern machines, and operate basically the same way.

Fay’s slot machines were a huge success, and he couldn’t build them fast enough in his small shop. Many larger gambling supply maufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights, but Fey refused. However, in 1907, Herbert Stephen Mills, a Chicago manufacturer of arcade-like machines, began production of a mahince very similar the Fey’s Liberty Bell. The Machine Mills produced was called the Operator Bell. By 1910, slot machines could be found in every cirt and nearly every hamlet in the country.

Forces of morality, and then of law, opposed the operation of slot machines. Throughout the 1920s, the slot machines were popular throughout much of the United States, especially in resort areas, and they continued to be popular into the Great Depression years of the ’30s. In the late 40’s Bugsy Siegel added slot machines to his Flamingo Hilton hotel in Las Vegas. Originally, the slot machines were installed as a way to entertain the wives and girlfriends of high rollers, but revenue from the slot machines soon began supplanting that of the table games. In the mid 1980’s the popularity of slot machines and table games were on par with each other, but by the 90’s slot machines had taken over and now account for over two-thirds of casino revenue in the US.…

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game

Introduction Pai Gow

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Get yourself comfortable, grab a drink if you wish, and settle in because pai gow is probably the most difficult casino game to explain. Although the ranking of the hands is rather involved the concept of the game is quite simple. Once you get over the learning curve pai gow is a lot of fun, has a low house edge, and your money should last a long time at the table.

The Chinese have been betting on Pai Gow for centuries. Today Pai Gow can be found in casinos that attract a strong Asian clientele. It may be hard to find in Las Vegas but I believe every casino has it in Atlantic City. The Taj Majal, for example, has three pai gow tables.

If you are already familiar with pai gow poker then pai gow will seem familiar. Pai gow is played with a set of 32 dominos displayed below. Notice that some dominos appear once and some twice.

There is no significance to the color of the dots.

The Rules

The object of the game is the same as in pai gow poker, to beat the banker. Unlike most casino games, in pai gow the player can have a turn to be the banker in which case the goal is to beat everybody else. The dealer also acts as a player in pai gow acting as banker in turn. When the dealer is not banking he will bet an amount equal to the bet the banker made the last time he played against the house bank. The dealer always plays his hand according to predetermined rules known as the house way. If a player wishes to bank but is uncomfortable with the financial risk of covering all other bets on the table he may ทางเข้า789bet request to co-bank with the house. If this option is selected his hand must be set according to the house way. The opportunity to bank is offered in turn to each player and dealer in a counter-clockwise direction.

The game is played with a set of 32 dominos, three dice, and a dice shaker. Play begins with all players making a wager. As the players decide how much to bet the dealer mixes up the dominos and puts them in 8 neat stacks of 4. Then the dice are rolled to determine who gets the first stack and then proceeds counter-clockwise. After the dice are exposed the player may not change his bet. Each player is given one stack of 4 dominos, which they are to arrange into two groups of two.

Each pair of dominos has a ranking. The player must decide how to arrange his dominos into the strongest possible pairs. Sometimes the choice is obvious but often a decision must be made whether to have a strong hand and a weak hand or two more balanced hands. At most there will be three possible and viable ways to play the hand. After a decision is reached the player should lay the dominos face down with the higher pair laying horizontally and the lower pair vertically. Only after all players have set their hands can the banker examine and set his dominos.

 

After all dominos have been arranged the banker and player will turn over their hands. Each player will in turn compare his hands to those of the banker. If the player wins both hands his bet pays even money less a 5% commission. If the player loses both he loses his entire wager. If the hands split, one win and one loss, then the bet is a push. After all bets have been settled the banker pays a 5% commission on the net win, if there was one.

 

Ranking

How the hands are ranked is the complicated and there is no easy way to memorize the order. The highest hands are the matched pairs as follows. The highest pair, known as the supreme pair consists of the two wild dominos. Each of these wild dominos, known as “gee” may count as either 3 or 6 points if used individually. The Chinese name for the supreme pair is “Gee Joon” which is also the name of a restaurant in Binion’s Horseshoe in downtown Las Vegas.

  1. Supreme 2. Heaven 3. Earth 4. Man 5. Goose 6. Flower

 

  1. Long 8. Board 9. Hachet 10. Partition 11. Long

Leg 7 12. Big

Head 6

 

Following in rank are certain non-matching pairs.

 

  1. Mixed 9 14. Mixed 8 15. Mixed 7 16. Mixed 5

 

Next in rank are special combinations known as Wongs. These combinations inlude either the 2 or 12 point domino and any 9 point domino.

 

  1. King of Heaven 18. King of Earth

or     or

Following the Wongs are other special combinations known as Gongs. These combinations inlude either the 2 or 12 point domino and any 8 point domino.

 

  1. Treasure of Heaven 20. Treasure of Earth

and  or  or  and  or  or

Finally, if a pair, Wong, or Gong can not be formed then the hand is ranked according to the terminal digit of the total pip value of dots on the dominos. For example a hand consisting of a 12 and 7 dominos would have a total of 19 spots for the highest possible value of 9. The highest among these hands are the 6+6 and 1+1 dominos combined with a 7, known as a “high nine” because of their composition with one of the two highest individual dominos. In the event the player and banker have the same point total then the highest ranking domino in each will will be used to break the tie, the high domino wins. In the event that the high dominos are equal then the tie shall go to the banker. Note that the second highest dominos are not used to break the tie. There is an exception, in the event of a 0-0 copy then the tie will go to the banker. The following list shows every domino in order of their rank.

 

  1. Heaven 2. Earth 3. Man 4. Goose
  2. Flower 6. Long 7. Board 8. Hatchet
  3. Partition 10. Long leg 7 11. Big head 6 12. Mixed 9

or

  1. Mixed 8 14. Mixed 7 15. Mixed 5 16. Mixed 6

or or or or

Note that while the two wild dominos together are the highest ranking pair (the supreme pair) individually they are the lowest in rank.

 

Strategy

There is no simple answer to what constitutes good strategy. Most of the time the correct play will be obvious. However sometimes the player must decide whether to weaken the high hand for the benefit of the low hand.

In his book Pai Gow Chinese Dominoes Michael J. Musante presents what is known now as the Musante house way which has influenced the house way of many casinos. Dr. John Gwynn later analyzed the effects of various strategies played against the Musante strategy. Assuming the player used the Musante strategy as well the house edge would be 0.6182% as the banker, 2.3896% as a player, and 1.5039% on average. Assuming the player used an optimal single strategy designed to defeat the Musante strategy the house edge would be -0.1387% as the banker, 1.6376% as a player, and 0.7495% on average. Assuming the player used two optimal strategies depending on whether acting as the banker or a player the house edge would be -0.1472% as the banker, 1.6225% as a player, and 0.7377% on average.

 

The most practical of these statistics for the novice player are those for the Musante vs. Musante. These figures also show that to minimize the overall house edge the ratio of money wagered as banker is much more important than the strategy used. Assuming the player banked half of his/her total bets and used the same strategy as the dealer and other players the house edge would be about 1.5%.

 

The House Way

Following is the house way for the Foxwoods casino. Of the three casino house ways I have I find this one to be the easiest to explain.

Always keep pairs together except:

Split supreme pair with 6-4, 6-5, or 6-6.

Split 2s or 12s to make 6-8 or better. Also split with 9&11.

Split 9s with any two of 2,10,12.

Split 8s with any two of 2,10,11,12. Also split with 9&11.

Split 7s with any two of 2,10,11,12.

Play 2 or 12 with a 7,8, or 9. With both a 2 and 12 play the 12 in the high hand. Play high 9 over wong and gong and gong over wong except:

Play wong over gong when fourth tile is 11.

Play wong over high 9 when fourth tile is 11.

Play gong over high 9 when fourth tile is any 4 or when third and fourth tiles are low (mixed) 8 and 5.

Make the low hand as high as possible. This includes playing the high domino in the low hand when given the choice. Exceptions:

If the low hand does not have a value of at least long 3 (a total of 3 with the long domino or higher) and a 7 or higher is possible in the high hand then make the high hand as high as possible. This includes playing the high domino in the high hand when given the choice.

If the two hands total 8-9 or more then play the high domino in the high hand.

2, 5, 6, 12: play 7, high 8.

High 8, low 8, high 4, any 7: play 2, high 5.

High 10, low 10, high 6, any 7: play 6, high 7.

High 10, low 10, high 6, low 8: play 6, high 8.

High 10, low 10, high 6, any 9: play 6, high 9.

High 10, high 8, 11, low 7: play 7, high 9.

High 4, low 4, gee (mixed 6), 5: play high 7, 9.

2 or 12, any 6, 5, gee: play 7, 9.

High 6, low 6, 11, gee: play 7, high 9.

High 8, low 8, any 7, 9: play high 5, 7.

Finally, there is an unwritten rule that you never play a hand in a way that an alternative would result in both a stronger high and low hand. For example with a pair of 12s, 6, and wild. The splitting 12s rule says to split to make 6-8 or better. However pair/9 beats 8/8 on both hand and low hands, thus overrides the pair splitting rule.

 

Play for Fun

Pai gow is a game that cries out for a way to practice before making a fool of yourself and blowing your money in a casino. For this reason please try my pai gow Java game.

Acknowledgements

Pai Gow Without Tears by Bill Zender. The author kindly gave me a copy of his booklet to help with my research on pai gow. If you are interested in the book it may be purchased from the Gambler’s Book Club for $20.00.

A Detailed Study of Pai Gow by Dr. John M. Gwynn, Jr. The author was gracious in sending me his study, which he no longer distributes, by e-mail.

The Foxwoods dealer, who shall remain anonymous, who provided me with the Foxwoods house way.

 

 

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game

The Caribbean Stud – permainan, yaitu

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Katakanlah dua pemain bermain Caribbean Stud Poker dan keduanya bertaruh side bet, dan secara kebetulan, keduanya mendapat royal flush. Akankah mereka berdua mendapatkan jumlah penuh pada pengukur progresif? Adrian P
Di Caribbean Stud Poker, semua pemain memiliki pilihan untuk membuat taruhan sampingan $1 yang membayar untuk hand flush atau lebih tinggi. Meskipun tabel pembayaran spesifik bervariasi dari satu kasino ke kasino lainnya, semuanya menampilkan jackpot progresif. Begitu ada pukulan, 100% jackpot berlaku untuk royal flush, atau, untuk straight flush, 10% dari total jackpot saat ini.

Meskipun sejauh yang saya ketahui, premis pertanyaan Anda tidak pernah terjadi, jika fantasi yang hampir mustahil itu terjadi, dan dua pemain histeris masing-masing memiliki royal flush di tangan yang sama, yah … Di kasino tempat saya bekerja, pemain pertama di sebelah kiri dealer akan memenangkan jackpot. Pemain kedua akan memenangkan jackpot apa pun yang diunggulkan kembali, yang umumnya $ 10.000 atau $ 20.000.

Saya memang mengajukan pertanyaan Anda kepada seorang eksekutif kasino yang berpikir jika hal yang tidak mungkin terjadi di kasinonya, dia Togel hongkong akan membagi jackpot di antara dua pemain. Tapi dia juga mengaku bahwa dia benar-benar tidak tahu apa aturan sebenarnya ketika dua pemain sama-sama mendapatkan royal flush di tangan yang sama.

Sekarang alasan logis, Adrian, akan memberitahu Anda untuk duduk sedekat mungkin ke kiri dealer. Tapi tidak secepat itu, kawan. Yang berpikiran jernih tidak akan membuat taruhan progresif sama sekali mengingat tepi rumah rata-rata lebih dari 26%, tergantung, tentu saja, pada ukuran jackpot.

Apapun, Adrian, itu adalah taruhan pengisap sebagian besar waktu dan saya menyarankan untuk tidak melakukannya.

Mark yang terhormat,
Kasino Nevada kecil tempat saya biasanya bermain tidak lagi menawarkan roulette. Bukankah permainan roulette menghasilkan uang untuk kasino? Dan H.

Tergantung, Dan. Jika real estat yang ditempati meja tidak membawa pulang bacon, tidak peduli apakah itu blackjack atau dadu, atau seperti dalam pertanyaan Anda, meja roulette, pergi ke surga tempat sampah. Selain itu, Dan, untuk peringkat popularitasnya di antara permainan meja; roulette adalah sepertiga jauh di belakang blackjack dan dadu. Adapun uang yang dipertaruhkan, itu yang keempat, di belakang tradisi tua itu — bakarat.

Dugaan ahli di sini adalah bahwa pemeriksaan Anda lebih dekat mungkin akan mengungkapkan bahwa bank mesin slot telah menggantikan meja roulette, dan kemungkinan besar membawa lebih banyak barang rampasan daripada yang pernah dilakukan meja roulette.

Mark yang terhormat,
Tolong jelaskan apa itu taruhan “total” dalam taruhan olahraga? Jake K.

Dengan bertaruh $11 untuk memenangkan $10, Anda dapat bertaruh pada total gabungan poin yang dicetak oleh kedua tim. Memenangkan taruhan “lebih” mengharuskan lebih banyak poin yang dicetak daripada total taruhan, dan memenangkan taruhan “di bawah” mengharuskan lebih sedikit poin yang dicetak. Dengan menggunakan sepak bola sebagai contoh, katakanlah total yang diposting untuk pertandingan Green Bay versus San Francisco adalah 42. Anda dapat bertaruh bahwa skor total kedua tim yang ditambahkan bersama akan melebihi atau di bawah total yang diposting. Jika skor akhir jatuh tepat pada total itu (misalnya Green Bay 28 + San Francisco 14 = 42), seri dinyatakan dan semua taruhan dikembalikan.

Omong-omong, Jake, ini sedikit patois judi untuk Anda. Bertaruh di atas dikenal sebagai “bertaruh pada bola”, bertaruh di bawah dikenal sebagai “bertaruh pada jam.” Pergi wow mereka.

Gambing kutipan minggu ini: Ketika seorang pria akhirnya terburu-buru dalam perjudian, tidak ada yang bisa menghentikannya untuk sementara waktu. Damon Runyon…

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business

Greek Translation at Translation Companies UK

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Greek translation service at Translation Agency UK:

Translation Agency UK offers a complete Greek translation service, turning a wide range of documents from English into Greek and from Greek into English. All this work is undertaken by native speakers of the target language. This ensures that the results always meet the highest linguistic standards.

Your translation matters to us and we never compromise on quality.

Our Greek translation service has been designed to satisfy all the needs of any potential client. Our experts have all been selected for their command of their original language as well as for their know-how in specialist areas.

The team provides swift and accurate translation from Greek to English and English to Greek in the following subject areas:

Biochemistry  Automotive  Information technology

Insurance  General subject matter  Law  Engineering

Advertising  Marketing  Administration

Telecommunication & Media  Environmental

Finance & Banking

Clients can be assured that our french translation service produces excellent results that are always on time and on target.

Speed and volume

Our greek translation service achieves an average turnaround of 6,000 words per day and per translator.

Accuracy

Our greek translation service is carried out by highly recommended professionals whose credentials have been thoroughly checked.

Format

Our greek translation service produces results that match your original document not only in terms of language, but also in presentation and layout.

Style and expression

Our greek translation service provides Translation Companies UK output that is always in tune with the tone of your material. Persuasive writing remains persuasive and formal remains formal.

Flexibility

Our greek translation service is available for 12 hours a day every day of the week – including Saturday and Sunday – via email correspondence. And these hours can be extended if prior arrangements are made. We always remember that you are the client and we are always willing to accommodate your needs.

Savings

We know that these days everyone is working to tight budgets. We discuss all the costs and expenses of our greek translation services up front, and inform clients immediately if any changes need to be made.

Absolute confidentiality

We respect your privacy. We guarantee that all documents entrusted to us remain strictly confidential.

Few Facts on the Greek language :

The Greek language is spoken by the 10 million inhabitants of Greece and some 82% of the population in Cyprus.

Greek is also spoken around the world in 35 other countries including Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bulgaria, Canada, Congo, , DRC, Djibouti, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan.

About 40% of the English vocabulary is built upon Greek words — not just the any 40%, but the most content-filled words used in literary, scientific, philosophical, and theological areas of study.

Greeks online population, according to Global Reach, 2003, total 2M worldwide.

 

 

 

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Updates

What to Do with a Finished Diamond Painting and Ravensburger Puzzles

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You’ve finally done it. You finished your first diamond project—yay! Now, you’re probably wondering what to do with a finished diamond painting. Well, you spent a lot of time and effort on creating something beautiful, so you’ll definitely want to preserve it in some way. But, how? We like to add a top seal to keep all of the diamond beads secure and then put it in a chic frame to hang on the walls of our home or office.

Before you can start the framing process, however, there are a few other finishing touches you can add to your painting just to make sure it’s as perfect as can be. Learn how to frame a diamond painting and look for any minuscule mistakes that could lead to bigger issues down the line.

Get Rid of Dust or Dirt
Most of us spend quite a bit of time working on a single diamond painting project because it can take a while to get every bead in the right place. Plus, if you want to create a truly stunning piece, you need to be diligent about the placement of every diamond; otherwise, you’ll end up with a painting that looks uneven or misshapen.

Because these projects can take days or even weeks–depending on how often you work on yours–it’s easy for debris like dirt, dust or even pet hair to get caught in the design. You may not notice any of these tiny inconveniences while working on the project, but once the beads have been sealed in and hung in a frame, you may see the difference. To clean your diamond painting, you can use a soft brush or even a toothbrush to very gently sweep any remains of your creation.

Check for Missing Areas
Have you ever thought you completed a Ravensburger Puzzles only to realize you had one piece missing? It is so easy for something similar to happen with a finished diamond painting. Because every piece is so small and the grid sections are so close together, you may end up thinking that you didn’t miss any spots, but once you hold your project up to a light board or a bright light (lamp or direct sunlight), any spots that have been skipped over will be illuminated. Before you do anything else with your finished product, you should use this test to check for discrepancies.

Be Sure Diamond Beads Are Secure

The diamonds beads of your painting are attached to the grid by the pattern’s sticky surface. However, sometimes we do not push down hard enough on each and every bead causing one (or more) of them to fall off once we lift up the painting. To avoid this, take a rolling pin and gently roll over the entire piece. This will provide each bead a little extra pressure that ensures that they are stuck to the grid.

Learn How to Properly Frame Your Diamond Painting
Adding your diamond painting to a frame gives it a classy and finished appearance. Framing your painting is a fairly easy process. You can buy a standard frame from any craft store, or look for a custom size to fit your specific painting. If you’re going to buy a standard frame from the store, look for one that is slightly smaller than your painting. Diamond art paintings have extra trim around the image so you can cut some of this material down to fit the frame and focus more on the image itself.…

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game

Whipping crabby Login Sbobet dealers?

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Playing recently with a friend, I noticed he was getting agitated with the dealer. But instead of leaving, he challenged this rude dealer, figuring he will get his just revenge by beating him out of his money. Anyhow, you can probably figure out what happened. He ended up leaving his money behind. What advice would you give my busted friend? William B.
Sometimes the best response to stormy weather is to unleash your own tempest. But against a well-financed cantankerous dealer, trust me, you will not restore equilibrium.

Your companion should have done what I would advise any player to do if uncomfortable with a surly dealer: unkeister that stool, as they say in the top European casinos, and hustle butt out of there. There is no value in playing heads-up with a non-simpatico dealer. Don’t get macho and challenge an ill-mannered dealer. His bankroll is not only the $10,000 he has laid out in front of him, but the myriad of millions in the vault.

Oh, yeah, William, another thing. Your friend’s got it wrong in believing the dealer’s money is on the table or that he has a stake or a preference – aside from his dyspeptic animus – in the outcome of your comrade’s play. Whether with a smile or a sneer, the dealer did what he’s paid to do: relieve visitors of their cash burdens.

Dear Mark,
Is it polite to ask a dealer if they are running hot or cold? June D.

No problem, June, just ask him. Most will tell you whether they are dumping the tray in the player’s favor; if not, you are staring at the dealer from hell. But a cautionary side note. In all the years that I pitched cards, I have been asked innumerable times if I were running hot or cold. I can count on one hand the players who walked and avoided the wrath of Pilarski, when I told them I was sizzling. Most players seem to have been vaccinated against common sense and think lady luck is super-glued to their left shoulders, no matter what admonition you give them.

Dear Mark,
My favorite type slot machines are the old mechanical types you find hidden in the corner in the few remaining casinos that carry them. The problem is, the jackpots are very small compared to the newer machines. Why don’t the older machines offer decent sized jackpots? Carol H.

Those patriarchal machines of the past you are describing each had three Login Sbobet reels, with 20 symbols on each reel. Mathematically that works out to 20 X 20 X 20 possible combinations, equaling a hot 8000 to 1 chance of your hitting a jackpot. Granted, the hardware may have looked something like today’s three reel/20 symbol slot machines, but the similarity stops there, and you would be dead wrong in assuming that there is an 8000 to 1 chance of hitting them.

Today’s hybrids out of yesterday’s sweet past all have a computer chip operating inside them, and those 20 symbols are now just computerized stops, with as many as 256 imaginary symbols per reel. The chance of hitting the top-line jackpot is 256 X 256 X 256, equating to 16,777,216 to one. With 4 reels and 256 stops, try four billion and change.

The main problem with an old mechanical machine is that you are confined to the physical size of the reel, which generally has 20 symbols on it. At an 8,000 to 1 chance of hitting a Godsend, you didn’t expect the casino prize to be a Lexus, nor a $250,000 jackpot. But with the computerized stops, the casino can safely offer caviar dreams.

Gambling thought of the week: “Games in which all may win, such games remain as yet in this world uninvented.” – Herman Melville, The Confidence Man (1857)…

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Focused Labs Rebranding As Graph Effect – Focused on Increasing Facebook “Likes” with Flic Social Media

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Social media marketing company Focused Labs is undergoing a name and focus change as it is preparing to assist companies in increasing their Facebook “likes”.

The company, now to be known as GraphEffect, has been involved with Facebook’s Advertising API program beta, in which brands can craft and post their own ads on the social network without needing to utilize the Facebook Advertising Manager tool.

GraphEffect is marketing itself as the first social media system to specifically focus on increasing Facebook “likes” and customer conversions through the network’s feeds. It is their opinion that, as digital advertising options multiply, brands need to tap into every possible avenue in order to maximize the bottom line. The social media agency feels that with its newly designed algorithms created specifically for Facebook, it can efficiently match customers with their clients’ products and services.

Before this announcement, Focused Labs had received a new $2 million dollar investment from a variety of venture capital funds including CrossCut Ventures, Rincon Venture Partners, Thrive Capital , Founder Collective, Lerer Ventures, and Baroda Ventures as well as individual angel investors Stephano Kim and Matt Coffin.

Expectations are high for GraphEffect but their investors and CEO assert that their efforts over the past year have driven millions of new fans to their clients, so if the company is able to continue this trend with their new goal then growth should continue unabated.

Facebook Playing Possible Matchmaker for Barbie and Ken

In a unique ploy, toy manufacturer Mattel is asking Facebook users to weigh in on whether or not Ken and Barbie, perhaps the toy world’s best-known couple, should get back together after a recent seven-year long breakup.

The couple, together for 43 years, took a hiatus back in 2004 when Barbie left Ken for Australian surfer ‘Blaine’. Since then, the Ken character broke out on his own with an appearance in the commercially and critically-lauded Toy Story 3 as well as at New York Fashion Week.

Mattel however is interested to see if fans would like to see the iconic couple back together, especially on the eve of the company’s upcoming “Sweet Talking Ken” doll release. The company has carefully employed social media to spread the message by heavily hitting up Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and YouTube in an effort that has begun gaining online traction as well as real world billboards posted in New York and Los Angeles. More about Flic Social Media

For their Facebook campaign, Ken only needs 10,000 “likes” on his page in order to finally reunite with Barbie; fans can also vote at a special website, barbieandken.com, to make their feelings known. Ken himself is hoping to reunite with his lost love this upcoming Valentine’s Day, in a perfectly timed gesture by Mattel.…

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Bitcoin ETN Makes its Debut in the United States – Crypto Gambling

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Investors in the United States who wish to trade Bitcoin without having to buy the cryptocurrency have been given another route to the top-ranked virtual currency via Bitcoin Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).

 

Details of the Bitcoin ETN

 

According to Bloomberg, starting Wednesday American investors will now have access to Bitcoin Tracker One, and BTC ETN and Crypto Gambling. The product which runs under the CXBTF ticker will be quoted in U.S. dollars. However, the clearing and settlement of the trade will be in Krona and Euro since the product is listed and regulated in Sweden.

 

The ETN is issued by XBT Provider, a subsidiary of CoinShares. The company developed the product in 2015. In July 2018, Amsterdam-based EU speed trading behemoth, Flow Traders became the first company to participate in the BTC ETN market.

 

For Americans, trading is this particular Bitcoin ETN is like purchasing a U.S. depository receipt in that a foreign-listed asset is denominated in U.S. dollars. Commenting on the ETN, CEO of Coinshares, Ryan Radloff said:

 

Everyone that’s investing in dollars can now get exposure to these products, whereas before, they were only available in euros or Swedish krona. Given the current climate on the regulatory front in the U.S., this is a big win for Bitcoin.

 

ETN Might Represent a Soft Opening for Bitcoin ETF

The introduction of BTC ETN trading capability in the United States could be seen as a soft opening for the much sought after Bitcoin exchange-traded fund (ETF). The SEC has far remained unmoved in its reticence concerning issuing approval for any BTC ETF.

 

Recently, the Commission denied the Winklevoss twins’ ETF application while postponing its decision on the VanEck/SolidX, as well as the Direxion filings. According to the SEC, issues relating to liquidity, custodial tools, and price manipulation haven’t been sufficiently addressed.

 

ETNs and ETFs are similar in some respects as they provide an opportunity to invest in an asset without actually owning the asset. Such a trading avenue seems perfect for cryptocurrencies given their price volatility. However, a few subtle differences exist between the two. Rather than being an asset pool, ETN is more like a debt instrument that is backed by a bank or any other recognized issuing institution.

 

Do you think the Bitcoin ETN will gain traction in the American market? Keep the conversation going in the comment section below.

 

Ethereum Price Falls Below $300 as Cryptocurrency Market Tumbles – Crypto ICO Report NEWS13 Total viewsNo comments

 

The price of Ethereum has fallen below $300 as the cryptocurrency market enters a more intense bearish pullback. Except for Tether, all other top ten coins have experienced significant negative price movements within the last 24-hour trading period.

 

Ethereum Tumbles 17 Percent

Ethereum, the second-ranked cryptocurrency according to market capitalization sunk to its lowest 2018 valuation on Monday afternoon UTC. ETH has not traded below $300 since the start of November 2017. At press time, ETH has dipped more than 17 percent to take its 2018 decline to 60 percent.

 

The decline in the price of ETH is being attributed to the disillusionment of ICO investors. The sheer number of ICO exit scams and the amounts being siphoned by these pump and dump schemes has created negative sentiments in the ETH market.

 

Ethereum, the preferred platform for most ICO projects benefited from this fact reaching above $1,000 in February 2018. At the time, BTC was declining below $6,000. However, the tide seems to have turned as many of the ICO projects that generated interest in ETH, driving up its price have begun to cash out to cover expenses. Thus, the ETH is is starting to slide. Commenting on the issue, BloomWater Capital chief, Biswas Das said:

 

These startups are raising a lot of funds, but they don’t have treasury management or enough cash management experience, so they’re selling too early and causing a lot of pressure in the market. It was fine last year, but right now, the market is so fragile that it causes a lot of pressure.

 

 

The general bearishness perhaps exacerbates the ETH decline in the market occasioned by stricter regulations and the slow pace of institutional adoption. Experts believe that projects aren’t done cashing out and thus predict even more pain for ETH investors as prices sink even lower.

 

Bitcoin Dips More than 20 Percent in August as Altcoins Continue to Bleed

Bitcoin briefly slipped below the $6,000 mark in the early morning on Tuesday (August 14, 2018). The top-ranked cryptocurrency is now back above $6,000 at the time of writing this article. BTC has dropped more than 20 percent in August eroding most of the gains accrued in July. Bitcoin’s year-to-date decline now stands at 57 percent.

 

Positive sentiments leading up to the SEC’s decision on numerous ETFs drove prices up to $8,400 in late July. However, the Commission has either rejected or delayed approving the various filings brought before it. The consensus is that an SEC-approved Bitcoin ETF in 2018 is highly unlikely.

 

The altcoin market, in general, appears bleak as well with prices depreciating significantly. Cardano leads the decline in the top ten, falling more almost 20 percent within the last 24 hours. Outside the top ten, Ethereum Classic has been unable to maintain its upward price trajectory after a raft of platform adoptions. The 13th-ranked cryptocurrency is currently down by more than 19 percent in the last 24 hours.

 

How low do you expect the price of Ethereum to reach in this current decline? Keep the conversation going in the comment section below.…

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Review of Blackjack Essays

Mason Malmuth is one of the most recognizable names in gambling for writing an incredible volume of information on applying skill to casino games. His book, Blackjack Essays, generally represents some of his earliest forays as an author and serves as a compendium of most of his contributions to the game of blackjack.

There are about 70 essays in this book dealing with a wide range of topics. Almost every one represented a new area of inquiry when it was written. Some now are well integrated into the corpus of general blackjack knowledge, some have been extended and elaborated on in other books, some represent the first foray into a still largely unexplored area, and some are still largely the last word on a particular topic.

The earliest essays in this book cover a concept Malmuth calls, “Card Domination”, which these days is more commonly called Shuffle Tracking. This is still a good introduction to the topic, although the Blackjack Forum series on Shuffle Tracking which appeared in about 1994 is far more thorough. However, I’ve recently seen shuffles which are trackable using Malmuth’s methods.

Another topic Malmuth explores in great depth is that of bankroll requirements or “Gambler’s Ruin”. Malmuth does a great job here of discussing why early blackjack literary figures probably underestimated the size of the fluctuations they would face. Of course, there was still room to explore these ideas in more detail in, for example, Blackjack Attack by Don Schlesinger. However, Malmuth’s writings on this topic are still valuable today, they’re just no longer the last word.

Malmuth provides what is probably the best currently in print description of Front Loading, good information on how to improve the profitability of casino trips, and, a Malmuth trademark, a thorough debunking of several mistaken blackjack myths perpetrated by other authors. Malmuth also provides some surprising results regarding biases, or “card clumping” that receives further attention in other books, but aptly demonstrates the author’s intellectual honesty in this volume.

On some topics, like Malmuth’s preference of shoe Slot Gacor games to hand-held games, and on his preference for more complex count systems, I disagree with the author. However, in these cases I do not fault his conclusions. Malmuth presents his case in a clear, straightforward manner listing the “pros” and “cons” of both sides of the issue and stating the reasons he believes his side of the debate is correct. By doing this he forces a reader who disagrees with him to articulate the reasons why, and, thus, does the reader a service.

Even though this book was first assembled almost 14 years ago, and some of its ideas have been expanded by other authors elsewhere, it still belongs in every serious blackjack player’s library. The ideas it espouses are, at their worst, worthy of serious consideration. I recommend it to anyone who has already learned and practiced a blackjack card counting system. Anyone who enjoyed this book should also read Gambling Theory and Other Topics, and anyone who enjoyed Gambling Theory and plays blackjack seriously should certainly read this book.

Capsule:

If you’ve learned and practiced a card counting system, have played in a casino, and are looking for extra advice, Blackjack Essays will likely be of considerable value. While it may not be the best supplemental book for the blackjack card counter (Blackjack Attack gets that honor), and some of its ideas are a bit dated or covered more thoroughly elsewhere, I still recommend it as a more than worthwhile addition to any serious blackjack player’s library.

 

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How To Stay Healthy While Diamond Painting ?!

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Making diamond paintings is an easy and relaxing, enjoyable activity for all young and old crafters. But if you are one of diamond painting lovers, please pay attention to your health when you’re so interested in the works and stay still too long for drilling.

 

Although painting with diamonds has many good benefits to your health, it also comes with some unexpected problems. When you sit and making it for too long, there will be some problems to your health such as:

 

Back and Neck Pain

 

To help you prevent from getting these problems, we have found out some ways for you.

 

  1. Take hourly breaks

Every hour,  get up from your desk or table and go for a quick walk anywhere. Just move. It will help you to reduce the stress to your eyes and also stretch your legs.

 

  1. Stretch or move in place

Don’t have anywhere to go? So you can stand up and stretch every half hour or so, touch your toes, walk or march in place for a few minutes.

 

 

  1. Set alarms on your computer or mobile device

Every hour of making diamond paintings, have a little ringer go off to remind you to take a stretch or walk to the nearest tree or neighbor’s house, or even walk/ play with your pet.

 

  1. Hit the water

Get yourself a reusable water bottle and keep it on your desk. Make yourself drink at least one full bottle before lunch, and one full one for the rest of the day. Drinking water will keep you fuller and less tempted to snack on empty calorie.  More about Diamond Dotz

 

  1. Use some useful support tools

A light pad is more useful than you think! Many choices for you such as light pad A4, bigger A3, bigger A2…

 

Moreover, an adjustable folding table or a simple easel is amazing! Let’s see some experience shared by diamond painters.

 

 

 

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Introduction Pai Gow

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Get yourself comfortable, grab a drink if you wish, and settle in because pai gow is probably the most difficult casino game to explain. Although the ranking of the hands is rather involved the concept of the game is quite simple. Once you get over the learning curve pai gow is a lot of fun, has a low house edge, and your money should last a long time at the table.

The Chinese have been betting on Pai Gow for centuries. Today Pai Gow can be found in casinos that attract a strong Asian clientele. It may be hard to find in Las Vegas but I believe every casino has it in Atlantic City. The Taj Majal, for example, has three pai gow tables.

If you are already familiar with pai gow poker then pai gow will seem familiar. Pai gow is played with a set of 32 dominos displayed below. Notice that some dominos appear once and some twice.

There is no significance to the color of the dots.

The Rules

The object of the game is the same as in pai gow poker, to beat the banker. Unlike most casino games, in pai gow the player can have a turn to be the banker in which case the goal is to beat everybody else. The dealer also acts as a player in pai gow acting as banker in turn. When the dealer is not banking he will bet an amount equal to the bet the banker made the last time he played against the house bank. The dealer always plays his hand according to predetermined rules known as the house way. If a player wishes to bank but is uncomfortable with the financial risk of covering all other bets on the table he may ทางเข้า789bet request to co-bank with the house. If this option is selected his hand must be set according to the house way. The opportunity to bank is offered in turn to each player and dealer in a counter-clockwise direction.

The game is played with a set of 32 dominos, three dice, and a dice shaker. Play begins with all players making a wager. As the players decide how much to bet the dealer mixes up the dominos and puts them in 8 neat stacks of 4. Then the dice are rolled to determine who gets the first stack and then proceeds counter-clockwise. After the dice are exposed the player may not change his bet. Each player is given one stack of 4 dominos, which they are to arrange into two groups of two.

Each pair of dominos has a ranking. The player must decide how to arrange his dominos into the strongest possible pairs. Sometimes the choice is obvious but often a decision must be made whether to have a strong hand and a weak hand or two more balanced hands. At most there will be three possible and viable ways to play the hand. After a decision is reached the player should lay the dominos face down with the higher pair laying horizontally and the lower pair vertically. Only after all players have set their hands can the banker examine and set his dominos.

 

After all dominos have been arranged the banker and player will turn over their hands. Each player will in turn compare his hands to those of the banker. If the player wins both hands his bet pays even money less a 5% commission. If the player loses both he loses his entire wager. If the hands split, one win and one loss, then the bet is a push. After all bets have been settled the banker pays a 5% commission on the net win, if there was one.

 

Ranking

How the hands are ranked is the complicated and there is no easy way to memorize the order. The highest hands are the matched pairs as follows. The highest pair, known as the supreme pair consists of the two wild dominos. Each of these wild dominos, known as “gee” may count as either 3 or 6 points if used individually. The Chinese name for the supreme pair is “Gee Joon” which is also the name of a restaurant in Binion’s Horseshoe in downtown Las Vegas.

  1. Supreme 2. Heaven 3. Earth 4. Man 5. Goose 6. Flower

 

  1. Long 8. Board 9. Hachet 10. Partition 11. Long

Leg 7 12. Big

Head 6

 

Following in rank are certain non-matching pairs.

 

  1. Mixed 9 14. Mixed 8 15. Mixed 7 16. Mixed 5

 

Next in rank are special combinations known as Wongs. These combinations inlude either the 2 or 12 point domino and any 9 point domino.

 

  1. King of Heaven 18. King of Earth

or     or

Following the Wongs are other special combinations known as Gongs. These combinations inlude either the 2 or 12 point domino and any 8 point domino.

 

  1. Treasure of Heaven 20. Treasure of Earth

and  or  or  and  or  or

Finally, if a pair, Wong, or Gong can not be formed then the hand is ranked according to the terminal digit of the total pip value of dots on the dominos. For example a hand consisting of a 12 and 7 dominos would have a total of 19 spots for the highest possible value of 9. The highest among these hands are the 6+6 and 1+1 dominos combined with a 7, known as a “high nine” because of their composition with one of the two highest individual dominos. In the event the player and banker have the same point total then the highest ranking domino in each will will be used to break the tie, the high domino wins. In the event that the high dominos are equal then the tie shall go to the banker. Note that the second highest dominos are not used to break the tie. There is an exception, in the event of a 0-0 copy then the tie will go to the banker. The following list shows every domino in order of their rank.

 

  1. Heaven 2. Earth 3. Man 4. Goose
  2. Flower 6. Long 7. Board 8. Hatchet
  3. Partition 10. Long leg 7 11. Big head 6 12. Mixed 9

or

  1. Mixed 8 14. Mixed 7 15. Mixed 5 16. Mixed 6

or or or or

Note that while the two wild dominos together are the highest ranking pair (the supreme pair) individually they are the lowest in rank.

 

Strategy

There is no simple answer to what constitutes good strategy. Most of the time the correct play will be obvious. However sometimes the player must decide whether to weaken the high hand for the benefit of the low hand.

In his book Pai Gow Chinese Dominoes Michael J. Musante presents what is known now as the Musante house way which has influenced the house way of many casinos. Dr. John Gwynn later analyzed the effects of various strategies played against the Musante strategy. Assuming the player used the Musante strategy as well the house edge would be 0.6182% as the banker, 2.3896% as a player, and 1.5039% on average. Assuming the player used an optimal single strategy designed to defeat the Musante strategy the house edge would be -0.1387% as the banker, 1.6376% as a player, and 0.7495% on average. Assuming the player used two optimal strategies depending on whether acting as the banker or a player the house edge would be -0.1472% as the banker, 1.6225% as a player, and 0.7377% on average.

 

The most practical of these statistics for the novice player are those for the Musante vs. Musante. These figures also show that to minimize the overall house edge the ratio of money wagered as banker is much more important than the strategy used. Assuming the player banked half of his/her total bets and used the same strategy as the dealer and other players the house edge would be about 1.5%.

 

The House Way

Following is the house way for the Foxwoods casino. Of the three casino house ways I have I find this one to be the easiest to explain.

Always keep pairs together except:

Split supreme pair with 6-4, 6-5, or 6-6.

Split 2s or 12s to make 6-8 or better. Also split with 9&11.

Split 9s with any two of 2,10,12.

Split 8s with any two of 2,10,11,12. Also split with 9&11.

Split 7s with any two of 2,10,11,12.

Play 2 or 12 with a 7,8, or 9. With both a 2 and 12 play the 12 in the high hand. Play high 9 over wong and gong and gong over wong except:

Play wong over gong when fourth tile is 11.

Play wong over high 9 when fourth tile is 11.

Play gong over high 9 when fourth tile is any 4 or when third and fourth tiles are low (mixed) 8 and 5.

Make the low hand as high as possible. This includes playing the high domino in the low hand when given the choice. Exceptions:

If the low hand does not have a value of at least long 3 (a total of 3 with the long domino or higher) and a 7 or higher is possible in the high hand then make the high hand as high as possible. This includes playing the high domino in the high hand when given the choice.

If the two hands total 8-9 or more then play the high domino in the high hand.

2, 5, 6, 12: play 7, high 8.

High 8, low 8, high 4, any 7: play 2, high 5.

High 10, low 10, high 6, any 7: play 6, high 7.

High 10, low 10, high 6, low 8: play 6, high 8.

High 10, low 10, high 6, any 9: play 6, high 9.

High 10, high 8, 11, low 7: play 7, high 9.

High 4, low 4, gee (mixed 6), 5: play high 7, 9.

2 or 12, any 6, 5, gee: play 7, 9.

High 6, low 6, 11, gee: play 7, high 9.

High 8, low 8, any 7, 9: play high 5, 7.

Finally, there is an unwritten rule that you never play a hand in a way that an alternative would result in both a stronger high and low hand. For example with a pair of 12s, 6, and wild. The splitting 12s rule says to split to make 6-8 or better. However pair/9 beats 8/8 on both hand and low hands, thus overrides the pair splitting rule.

 

Play for Fun

Pai gow is a game that cries out for a way to practice before making a fool of yourself and blowing your money in a casino. For this reason please try my pai gow Java game.

Acknowledgements

Pai Gow Without Tears by Bill Zender. The author kindly gave me a copy of his booklet to help with my research on pai gow. If you are interested in the book it may be purchased from the Gambler’s Book Club for $20.00.

A Detailed Study of Pai Gow by Dr. John M. Gwynn, Jr. The author was gracious in sending me his study, which he no longer distributes, by e-mail.

The Foxwoods dealer, who shall remain anonymous, who provided me with the Foxwoods house way.

 

 

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Spanish 21 history

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A child of the computer age, spanish 21 is a computer derived variation of blackjack. The term “spanish” refers to the 48-card deck used in some spanish card games. It is a regular 52-card deck with the four tens removed. Although, in most respects spanish 21 is played just like standard blackjack the basic strategy is somewhat different.
As a specially designed version of blackjack, spanish 21 had liberalized rules and unique bonuses. The casinos can be so generous in spanish 21 because removal of the four tens from the deck gives the house a large advantage. The changes in rules and payout were designed to attract jaded blackjack players and are what has made the game so popular. For instance, in standard blackjack, it is always exhilarating to hit a count of 21 on the nose. But it quickly turn into a disappointment if the dealer also hits 21 (resulting in a push instead of a win). In spanish 21, if both dealer and player have 21, the player wins.

A big reason why the casinos like spanish 21 so much is Unique Casino because it’s quick like traditional blackjack, and gives player about the same edge, while throwing off card counters. Not to mention the fact that the more liberal rules of spanish 21 attracts the players who have grown tired of blackjack.

slot machines history

The term slot machines was originally used for automatic vending machines as well as for the gambling devices, but in the 20th century the term became restricted to the latter. The first such gambling devices in the United States were mere novelties that did not return coins but presented gambling opportunities, such as two toy horses that would race after a coin was inserted. Such devices set on a bar in a saloon attracted wagering between patrons.

The first actual slot machines were built by Charles Fay in 1887 in a small machine shop in San Francisco. He built nickle slot machines by hand and rented them to the local gambling halls. His first machine was not, as some believe, cruder and bulkier than modern slot machines, nor did its reels carry the fruit symbols commonly used today. His original slot machine, called the Liberty Bell, was somewhat smaller than modern machines, and operate basically the same way.

Fay’s slot machines were a huge success, and he couldn’t build them fast enough in his small shop. Many larger gambling supply maufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights, but Fey refused. However, in 1907, Herbert Stephen Mills, a Chicago manufacturer of arcade-like machines, began production of a mahince very similar the Fey’s Liberty Bell. The Machine Mills produced was called the Operator Bell. By 1910, slot machines could be found in every cirt and nearly every hamlet in the country.

Forces of morality, and then of law, opposed the operation of slot machines. Throughout the 1920s, the slot machines were popular throughout much of the United States, especially in resort areas, and they continued to be popular into the Great Depression years of the ’30s. In the late 40’s Bugsy Siegel added slot machines to his Flamingo Hilton hotel in Las Vegas. Originally, the slot machines were installed as a way to entertain the wives and girlfriends of high rollers, but revenue from the slot machines soon began supplanting that of the table games. In the mid 1980’s the popularity of slot machines and table games were on par with each other, but by the 90’s slot machines had taken over and now account for over two-thirds of casino revenue in the US.…

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